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Český časopis historický 3/2013 - str. 481 -680

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Jazyk: němčina
Publikováno: 14.10.2013
Formát: 1x kniha (brožovaná) 199 stran
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České ústřední vědecké periodikum v oboru historie.OBSAH / CONTENTS STUDIE / STUDIES KALHOUS David Čechy a říše: problém pramenů nebo historiografie? (The Czech Lands and the Holy Roman Empire: the Problem of Primary Sources or Historiography?) s. 481–516 The picture of the Bohemians in the Imperial chronicles shows that although the Czech Princes were respected partners as early as the 10th century, yet this picture was also assigned beyond the borders of the space with which these authors identified themselves. This relationship was even endowed with a specific feature, namely a tributary obligation. Despite the fact that no mention of this is made in the texts from the 11th–12th centuries, a sort of „stranger-danger“ leaves an unpleasant aftertaste. Thus, the Czech princes soon ranked themselves within this group of „Imperial Princes“, they were even afforded the right to participate in the election of the Roman King, yet in the case of a conflict the cultural stereotype placing their political rival amongst the barbarians would be re-activated. Indeed, a mere few manuscript documents may separate the views which on one hand extol their virtues or classify them amongst the barbarians. It is also worth mentioning that the events in the Czech Lands would find themselves in the viewfinder of the „Imperial“ chroniclers only in the case when mutual conflict arises between them. A comparison of the image of the „Bohemians“ as outsiders with their own self- concept makes it possible for us to present several theses at the conclusion of our research. Firstly, both the authors active within the borders of the Przemyslid overlordship and the chroniclers from the territory of present-day Germany and Austria share the view that in the temporal hierarchy the Przemyslid Prince stood below the rank of the Roman Emperor or King and owed him obeisance. Secondly, both groups of texts differentiate between the „Bohemians“ and the „Teutones“ and understand them to be unique communities with their own „customs“. However, in the Imperial chronicles we only come across the „Bohemians“ in situations when they find themselves at odds with the Roman King. These situations are also mentioned by the authors from Bohemia and Moravia, yet while the former expect them to show obedience and yield, the latter emphasize, often through the mouths of the main characters of their books, distinct and expressly granted rights, which co-create their own understanding of themselves. Together with their specific „customs“ and „manners“ and their mutually shared past, they represent one of the sources of identity which further strengthen the „difference“ which both sides emphasize. However, the „difference“ represents a useful weapon in the hands of some Imperial chroniclers: a means to take the „disobedient“ or otherwise inconvenient Princes of the „Bohemians“ down a peg or two to the position of the rulers of barbarians, and thus dishonour them even more. It is probable that the chroniclers of the Przemyslid dominia often run into this „outer image“ of themselves during their study trips and travels abroad and also in their work with texts which they intended to use when writing up their works, similarly, Przemyslid diplomatic missions, consisting of the members of the highest echelons of aristocracy, had to face such an image of themselves. It is, then, more than likely that this „external picture“ also impacted on the formation of their own identity, becoming a part of it, be it as a positive or negative imprint. Apart from this, rather „reactive“ side of the image of themselves, positively defined identificators, which one could relate to, played an important role– namely the shared image of the common past, evidenced by Cosmas and those who copied him and his followers, the Dynasty and Holy patrons, in particular the „eternal King“ St. Wenceslas. While the positive factors contributed to the fact that this identity took root, the negative influences

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