Product Description The Penguin Dictionary of International
Relations provides an authoritative overview of this complex and
constantly shifting subject. Ranging from the Arab–Israeli conflict
to weapons of mass destruction, this is an indispensable and
comprehensive guide to the events, organisations, theories and
concepts that are shaping today’s global community. From the
PublisherSome sample entries:LEAST DEVELOPED COUNTRIES (LDCs) This
term has been used for some time within the United Nations to
describe those states at the bottom of the hierarchy, at least in
terms of economic criteria. The UN defines these states as those
having the lowest per capita GDP, the lowest levels of literacy and
the smallest share of secondary or manufacturing industries input
into GDP. The colloquial term Forth World is sometimes used to
refer to these states. Bangladesh, with something like one-quarter
of the total population of the LDCs is a paradigm of this class of
states. In many instances they show negative growth rates of per
capita income annually and they run the real risk of `dropping out'
of the system altogether if their prospects cannot be improved.
FREE WORLD A term associated with Cold War era indicating those
parts of the world not subject to communist influence or
domination. Sometimes used as a synonym for the West, although this
was erroneous as it was clearly the intention of US policy-makers
to include non-Western and Third World states under this rubric. In
the immediate post-war period the United States was the architect
of a number of overlapping global alliances which John Foster
Dulles referred to as the `Free World Alliance'. CONTRABAND
Categories of war materials which, under international law, may be
seized by one belligerent when supplied by a neutral to another.
However, the exact definition of `war materials' has always been a
contentious matter and interpretations have tended to be expansive.
Thus, the category of `conditional contraband' refers to seized
material which may have been destined for innocent peacetime use
but which has been deemed by a belligerent as useful to the war
effort. In the age of total warfare, the distinction between
permissible and non-permissible goods has further collapsed with
the result that during the two twentieth-century world wars
relations between belligerents and neutrals were often strained.
Lack of clear unequivocal legal guidance has inevitably resulted in
a good deal of auto-interpretation on this issue.